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1. EC2 Virtual Servers also known as instances.

2. Instance types: It is decided based on CPU, memory, storage, and networking capacity of instances.

3. If you want to login EC2 instances remotely, you have to use key pairs (AWS stores the public key, and you store the private key in a secure place).

4. Instance Store (Temporary): It is a temporary data store in EC2, that's deleted when you stop or terminate your instance.

5. Persistent storage: Storage volumes for your data using Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS), known as Amazon EBS volumes.

8. Cloudwatch: To monitor basic statistics for your instances and Amazon EBS volumes, you can use Amazon CloudWatch. 

9. CloudTrail: To monitor the calls made to the Amazon EC2 API for your account, including calls made by the AWS Management Console, command line tools, and other services, use AWS CloudTrail.

10. RDS :  Although you can set up or install your own database on an EC2 instance e.g. Oracle, MySQL etc. Use Amazon RDS which offers the advantage of handling your database management tasks, such as patching the software, backing up, and storing the backups.

11. On-Demand instances: Pay for the instances that you use by the hour, with no long-term commitments or up-front payments.

12. Reserved Instances: Make a low, one-time, up-front payment for an instance, reserve it for a one or three-year term, and pay a significantly lower hourly rate for these instances.

13. Spot instances (Instance bidding e.g. Stock Bid): Specify the maximum hourly price that you are willing to pay to run a particular instance type. The Spot price fluctuates based on supply and demand, but you never pay more than the maximum price you specified. If the Spot price moves higher than your maximum price, Amazon EC2 shuts down your Spot instances.